Waiting has come to an end … finally the pdf edition of the Lecture Notes on Non-Commutative Distributions has arrived. As a bonus for loyal followers I have added, compared to the actual content of the lecture series, two small sections at the end on what our machinery has to say about Connes embedding problem and the q-Gaussian distribution. Though, don’t expect too much there …

# Tag Archives: Connes embedding problem

# Another online seminar: Wales MPPM Zoom Seminar

At the moment there are many online activities going on …. and here is another one: the Wales Mathematical Physics Zoom Seminar, organized by Edwin Beggs, David Evans, Gwion Evans,Rolf Gohm, Tim Porter.

Why do I mention in particular this one; there are at least two reasons. Today there is a talk by Mikael Rordam around the Connes embedding problem, and next week I will give a talk, on my joint work with Tobias Mai and Sheng Yin of the last years around rational functions of random matrices and operators.

If you are interested in any of this, here is the website of the seminar, where you can find more information.

**Update**: The talks are usually recorded and posted on a youtube channel. There you can find my talk on “Random Matrices and Their Limits”.

# Is there an impact of a negative solution to Connes’ embedding problem on free probability?

There is an exciting new development on Connes’ embedding problem. The recent preprint MIP*=RE by Ji, Natarajan, Vidick, Wright, Yuen claims to have solved the problem to the negative via a negative answer to Tsirelson’s problem via the relation to decision problems on the class MIP* of languages that can be decided by a classical verifier interacting with multiple all powerful quantum provers. I have to say that I don’t really understand what all this is about – but in any case there is quite some excitement about this and there seems to be a good chance that Connes’ problem might have a negative solution. To get some idea about the excitement around this, you might have look on the blogs of Scott Aaronson or of Gil Kalai. At the operator front I have not yet seen much discussion, but it might be that we still have to get over our bafflement.

Anyhow, there is now a realistic chance that there are type II factors which are not embeddable and this raises the question (among many others) what this means for free probability. I was asked this by a couple of people and as I did not have a really satisfying answer I want to think a bit more seriously about this. At the moment my answer is just: Okay, we have our two different approaches to free entropy and a negative solution to Connes embedding problem means that they cannot always agree. This is because we always have for the non-microstates free entropy that , if are free semicircular variables which are free from . The same property for the microstates free entropy , however, would imply that have microstates, i.e., the von Neumann algebra generated by is embeddable; see these notes of Shlyakhtenko.

But does this mean more then just saying that there are some von Neumann algebras for which we don’t have microstates but for which the non-microstates approach give some more interesting information, or is there more to it? I don’t know, but hopefully I will come back with more thoughts on this soon.

Of course, everybody is invited to share more information or thoughts on this!